The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza) or Exile (Hebrew: Galut; Yiddish: Golus) refers to the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites, and later Jews out of what is considered their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and the communities built by them across the world.
But this is not the first time the Jews have left or been exiled.
A brief timeline
2091 BC Abraham goes to Canaan
1876 BC Jacob's family goes to Egypt 
1550 BC Egyptian slavery begins
1446 BC Exodus
1406 BC Joshua enters Canaan
 930 BC Israel  splits into Judah (Southern Kingdom)  and Israel (Northern Kingdom)
 722 BC N. kingdom (Israel) falls to Assyria 
 586-97 BC S. Kingdom (Judah) falls to Babylon 
            Solomn's Temple Destroyed
 605 BC Daniel taken captive to Babylon
 458 BC Ezra returns to Jerusalem
   5 BC Christ born
  70 CE Rome destroys the Second Temple after the Jewish Roman war
 135 CE  Hadrian's army defeates the Jewish armies and Jewish independence was lost.
       Jews were banned from living in Jerusalem.      
     This began the diaspora (scattering of the population to other parts of the world.)
    The Greek term for diaspora  also appears three times in the New Testament,
     where it refers to the scattering of Israel, i.e., the Ten Northern Tribes of Israel 
    Most of the Jewish people in this period, especially the wealthy families, went to Babylonia.
    The poorest but most fervent of the exiles returned to Judah
 360 - the late Roman Empire, Jews were free to form networks of cultural and religious
    ties and enter into various local occupations.
 380 - Christianity became the official religion of Rome and Constantinople
     Jews were increasingly marginalized.
 610-620  Sassanids Dynasty of Persia defeat the Byzantines (Eastern Romans)
  and take over Syria, Palestine, Egypt and most of Asia minor
 630-660 - Early Muslim/Arab conquests of the Middle East, N. Africa,
         and Iberian Peninsula (Spain Portugal)
 700 - Muslims had conquered and settled most of the Iberian Peninsula.
     Jews, who had lived in these regions since Roman times, were considered 
    "People of the Book" (adherents of Abrahamic religions)
      and given special status and often thrived. The tolerance of the Muslim   Moorish rulers 
      of al-Andalus attracted Jewish immigration, and Jewish enclaves in Muslim Iberian cities
     flourished as places of learning and commerce. 
 800 - Charlemagne's expansion of the Frankish empire around 800, including northern Italy and Rome,
   Created opportunities for Jewish merchants to settle again north of the Alps.
 1037 - The Turko-Persion Seljuk empire covers an area from 
 1095-1101 - Christians capture Jerusalem in the first crusade
 1187  Saladin, a Muslim, captures Jerusalem. 
In the 13th century Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274, the leading scholastic theologian
  of the Roman Catholic Church, argued that charging of interest(usury) is wrong
  because it amounts to "double charging",
  charging for both the thing and the use of the thing.
  Matthew 5:42 says to "lend to them without expecting to get anything back."
 Jewish law, Deuteronomy 23:20-21, allows charging interest to foreigners. 
 The consequence is the Jews dominated the banking industry from the 13th to 15th centuries. 
 Many Jews accumulated great wealth thru banking resulting in resentment and in part 
 some of the expulsions from Europe (below).

 1200-1400 - Expulsions from England (1290), France (1394), 
    Spain (1492) and parts of Germany (15th century).
 See Why Did Jews Get Expelled From England And Parts Of France? -
   Jewish migration pushed eastward into Poland (10th century),
    Lithuania (10th century), and Russia (12th century).
1492 Sultan Bayazid II of the Ottoman Empire, learning about the expulsion of Jews from Spain,
 dispatched the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands,
  mainly to the cities of Salonica (currently in Greece) and Smyrna (currently in Turkey).
Middle Ages - Increasing geographical dispersion and re-settlement,
   Jews divided into distinct regional groups
 which today are generally addressed according to two primary geographical groupings:
  the Ashkenazi of Northern and Eastern Europe, and the Sephardic Jews of Iberia (Spain and Portugal).
   See Jews in the Middle Ages - Wikipedia
 It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed only three percent 
 of the world's Jewish population, while at their peak in 1931 they accounted for
  92 percent of the world's Jews.
1500s Martin Luther thought the Jews would support the Protestant Reformation
    because of  the anti-Semitism in the Roman Catholic Church. 
    However, they ignored him and the Reformation.
    Luther was upset and and produced anti-Semitism writing.
1740 A family from Lithuania became the first Ashkenazi Jews to settle in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem.
1800's - The land of Palestine was peaceful with 86 percent Muslim, 10 percent Christian, and 4 percent Jewish .
Late 1800s - A jewish group in Europe decided to colonize this land. Known as Zionists, they represented an extremist minority of the Jewish population. Their goal was to create a Jewish homeland, and they considered locations in Africa and the Americas, before settling on Palestine.
1917 - At the end of WW I England issued the Balfour Declaration:
His Majesty's Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
1918 - After WWI the British and French carved up the old Ottoman Empire into spheres of influence and created the state of Palestine.

1936-39 Arab opposition to British policies developed into the Arab revolt.

1945 - Both the United States and Britain supported the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which favored the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, but resisted implementing it for fear of problems with Arabs.

1947 - On November 29, 1947 the United Nations adopted Resolution 181 (also known as the Partition Resolution) that would divide Great Britain’s former Palestinian mandate into Jewish and Arab states in May 1948 when the British mandate was scheduled to end.
The ongoing tensions between Arabs and Jews erupted into civil war.

1948 - After the establishment of the state of Israel the Arab-Israeli War of 1948 broke out when five Arab nations invaded territory in the former Palestinian mandate; The goal was to block the Partition Resolution and to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state.

See Arab Israeli Wars

Bible Genealogy
The nations of Noah's descendants
Middle East Empires Palestine During World War I | Jewish Virtual Library
Remapping Europe and the Middle East after World War I

last updated 8 Nov 2014