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This is written for U.S. Citizens.
Canada, Mexico, most of the Caribbean (The Dominican Republic requires a card on arrival), Europe (Except turkey which requires an eVisa), Israel, South America (except Brazil and Venezuela; Bolivia, Paraguay and Suriname require visas on arrival),Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, India requires an e-Visa, Nepal requires a visa on arrival, Vietnam requires an e-visa, Morocco, South Africa, Botswana and Namibia, do not require visas.
See Visa requirements for United States citizens - Wikipedia
In many countries requiring a visa you or an entrusted representative must go to an embassy or consulate in person. There are many companies which provide this service for a fee.
Walgreens $13.99 2 pictures
Many places like drug stores, Costco, ...
There is an app for your smartphoneCheap Passport Photos Online - MyPassportPhotos has apps for your smartphone allowing you to take your own picture and send it to them for printing.