last updated 21 June 2024

Taxonomy: .

Swedish Naturalist, Carolus Linnaeus, in 1758 had two kingdoms, animal and vegetable.

Current taxonomy is:


Domain Bacteria

Kingdom Bacteria - Single celled organisms prokaryotes [no nucleus]). Bacteria inhabit soil, water, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.

Domain Archaea

Kingdom Archaea - Single celled organisms (prokaryotes [no nucleus]) with distinctive cell membranes. Archaea were initially viewed as extremophiles living in harsh environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes, but they have since been found in a broad range of habitats, including soils, oceans, marshlands and the human colon and navel.

Domain Eukarya*

Kingdom Protoctista or Protista - e.g. Protozoa, Green Algae, Slime mold, ...

Kingdom Plantae - e.g. Mosses, grasses, flowering plants, shrubs, vegetables, fruit trees, conifers, ...

Kingdom Animalia - e.g. Sponges, jellyfish, coral, worms, oysters, fish, reptiles, insects, birds, mammals, ...

Kingdom Fungi - Mushrooms, Penicillium (from which Penicillin is derived) molds, athlete's foot, rusts, yeasts

Kingdom Chromista - Diatoms, kelps, golden algae, yellow-green algae, downy mildew

* Eukarya - Single or multi-celled organisms with a cell nucleus.
Source Taxonomy here.

Plant vs Animal: Plants and animals differ in many ways, including their cells, food sources, and movement:
Plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose, which provide structural support and give plant cells their rectangular shape. Animal cells do not have cell walls.
Plants can make their own food using energy from sunlight through photosynthesis. Animals must eat plants or other animals to get organic molecules
Animals are heterotrophs, so they must eat plants or other animals to get organic molecules.

History of Life
Human Evolution
History of Life - Gould
The History of Life at UC Berkeley
History of Life| Wikipedia
Origins of Life Initiative | Harvard

"Big History", Cynthia Brown
"Maps of Time", by David Christian