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Top Level Domains (TLDs)
The domain name structure is defined in RFC 1591
"country-code" TLDs or "ccTLDs"  (such as .de, .mx, and .jp) 
"generic" TLDs, or "gTLDs"
 1980's .com, .edu, .gov, .int, .mil, .net, and .org
 (Old: .arpa, .nato)

Top level Domains (TLD)
Original (198?):
.com	Commercial
.gov	Goverment
.org	Organization
.net	Network
.edu	US Educational
.mil	US Military
.int	organizations established by international treaties between governments. 
 Nov 2000
TLD Purpose Sponsor
.aero Air-transport industry Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques SC,
.biz Businesses NeuLevel
.coop Cooperatives DotCooperation,
.info Unrestricted Afilias
.museum Museums Museum Domain Management Association, (MuseDoma)
.name registration by individuals Global Name Registry, LTD,
.pro Accountants, lawyers, physicians, and other professionals RegistryPro, LTD
Country Code Names:
.au - Australia, .ca - Canada, .gb - United Kingdom (Great Britain),
 .de - Germany, .fr - France, .tw - Taiwan, .us - United States, ...
Complete list of Country Code Elements

.biz (2001)	Businesses	
.info	(2001) Unrestricted use	
.museum	Museums	
.name	(2002) For registration by individuals	
certain country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs) have decided to open their name spaces
 to all interested registrants, regardless of country.
  These domains are often referred to as "open ccTLDs"
.cc (Cocos Islands)
.tv (Tuvalu) - Television
.ws (Western Samoa) - Web sites

.aero - Air-transport industry
.coop	Cooperatives	
.pro	Accountants (, lawyers ( , and physicians (
In 2013 and 2014 over 200  new top-level domains were opened.
e.g.  .church, .consulting, .careers, .ventures, .singles, .bike, .guru, .camera, ...
As of October 2014 there were 735 active top-level domains.
Domain Registration:
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Listing of all Accredited .name Registrars at
How to Register Your Own Domain Name: What to Do, Which Registrar, etc (

Review/Ratings of Registration Services:

Domain Registries: by volume
1. Go Daddy (
The following were ranked #2 and 3 in 2012
eNom - domain name, web site hosting, email, registration
Tucows Domains
Domain Names  | Uniregistry
Network Solutions no longer the largest 2014
Top 10 domain name registrars. Is GoDaddy the best? | Top 100 Web Hosting - 2012 and will provide you with a sub-domain name, which looks like

WhoIs domain owner lookup AllWhoIs
WhoIs Lookup at Network Solutions whoIs
tucows WHOIS Lookup Utility ________________________

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
List of Accredited Registrars 
Top level Domains (TLD) at (IANA) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Network Solutions a VeriSign Company
Verio Register Domain Names
  See examples on the Matching Domains and IP Addresses Page
US and Canada:
  .ST.CC    (State/Province.Country)
  e.g. (Quebec)

US Domain is defined in RFC 1480
     .FED.US          Federal Government
     .DNI.US          Distributed National Institutes
     .ISA.US          Interstate Authority
     <city>.<state>.US   <state> is the 2 digit state postal code
   .CI.<city>.<state>.US   City Govt
   .CO.<county>.<state>.US County Govt.
  .CC.<state>.US           Community College
  .TEC.<state>.US          Technical and Vocational Schools
  .K12.<state>.US          K-12 Schools
  .PVT.K12.<state>.US      Private Schools
  .state.<state>.US        State Government
  .lib.<state>.US          Libraries
  .MUS.<state>.US          Museums
  .D<state>.ST.US          Districts
  .COG.<state>.US          Councils of Government
  .GEN.<state>.US          General 


  .com.CC    (where CC = 2-digit country code)
  .edu.CC,  .or.CC,  .org.CC,  .net.CC,  .ac.CC,  .co.CC,  .go.CC,  .re.CC,,,,  .eunet.CC  (EuropeNet)
  You may also have just <company>.cc (e.g.,
W3 Servers by Continent
DXCC Country list

Terms: ccTLD – Country Code Top-Level Domains DNS - Domain Name Server DNSSEC - Domain Name System Security Extensions gTLD – Generic Top-Level Domain ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers for internationalized domain names (IDN) RRA - Registry-Registrar Agreement SLD - Second-level domain sTLD – Sponsored Top-Level Domains TLD - Top Level Domain uTLD – Unsponsored Top-Level Domains
See Also: TLD (gTLD, sTLD, uTLD, ccTLD) | Domain Name Basics | iGoldrush An important lesson in pre-ordering new top level domain names | Domain Name Wire | Domain Name News & Views Matching Company, Domains & IP Addrs Net Names Registration Services in England Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) NORID (Norsk Registreringstjeneste for Internett Domenenavn) has pointers to TLD administrators around the world. Domain Registries - Comments - Forums: I, Cringely Which domain registrar is best? - I, Cringely The final straw for me with GoDaddy, though, was that I let a domain lapse but later changed my mind and wanted to renew it. It was still held by GoDaddy and the WHOIS showed it still registered to me, yet GoDaddy wanted something like $100 for me to get my domain back. _____________________________________________ From: huitema @ (Christian Huitema) @ smtp2 Date: 05/07/97 05:46:58 PM Subject: Re: IP address to domain mapping The Internic service gives information on network registration. It is a heavy weigt service, but you can certainly use it for the most accessed entries. Example: $ whois -h Infinite Systems (NETBLK-MCI-NETBLK-INFINET-2) MCI-NETBLK-INFINET-2 - MCI Internet Services (NETBLK-MCI-NETBLK06) MCI-NETBLK06 - To single out one record, look it up with "!xxx", where xxx is the handle, shown in parenthesis following the name, which comes first. The InterNIC Registration Services Host contains ONLY Internet Information (Networks, ASN's, Domains, and POC's). Please use the whois server at for MILNET Information. $ whois -h "!NETBLK-MCI-NETBLK-INFINET-2" Infinite Systems (NETBLK-MCI-NETBLK-INFINET-2) 274 Marconi Drive Columbus, OH 43215 US Netname: MCI-NETBLK-INFINET-2 Netblock: - Coordinator: Nugen, James (JN11) hostmaster@INFINET.COM 6142412990 Record last updated on 20-Nov-96. Database last updated on 5-May-97 06:01:19 EDT. The InterNIC Registration Services Host contains ONLY Internet Information (Networks, ASN's, Domains, and POC's). Please use the whois server at for MILNET Information. Hope this helps. -- Christian Huitema _____________________________________________ From: huitema @ (Christian Huitema) Date: 05/15/97 02:06:31 PM Subject:Re: IP address to domain mapping There were plans to have .int managed by the ITU, but it may still be managed by ISI. The European domains are managed by the RIPE NCC (try The Asian domain are managed by the AP NIC. -- Christian Huitema _____________________________________________ From: nlj @ ("Nicholas Lordi Jr") @ smtp2 Date: 05/15/97 08:55:47 AM Subject:RE: international registries For Asia/Far East the registry is APNIC whois -h For Europe the registry is RIPE whois -h Nick _____________________________________________ From: webmaster @ (RIPE NCC Webmaster) @ smtp2 Date: 05/21/97 02:00:35 PM Subject: Re: whois.ripe database Hi Don, the database in the main only contains info on reverse domains. The RIPE NCC has very little to do with forward domains, and as far as I know there are no plans to change this. The main intention of the database is as an IP Number registry. Thus, to take one example from your list, all of the European addres space allocated to Demon Internet is to be found in the database. The page: contains pointers to the top level domain administrators, who often maintain databases relating to the forward domains they administer. This might help. _____________________________________________

last updated 16 Nov 2014