Contents:

Introduction
Communication
Social networking    
Instant Messaging - Chat - Text/voice/video
Location-based social networks
Collaboration
Social bookmarking (or social tagging)
Social news
Cloud document and note syncing
Groupware 
Forums - Discussion Groups
Others (Patients, Dating, Moms, Q&A, ..)
Design Tools
Users & Demographics
Reference/Links
Blogging
Blog Sites
Content Management Systems (CMS)
Microblogging  
Events
Fundraising
Information Aggregators/
Personal web portal
Multimedia
Livecasting
Music and audio sharing
Photography and art sharing
Video sharing
Presentation sharing
Webinars - Internet Conferencing
Introduction:
Social networking has exploded in the last few years. Below are the top 100 *. See Social Media at Wikipedia for more.
Social Network Sites (SNS) are are a sub category of Web 2.0 (User Generated Content) websites.
It is a reader pull model (readers decide if and when to look at content which stays up indefinitely) rather than an author push model, like email which was the dominant person-to-person e-communication platform.
Social media refers to the fact that they frequently contain images and video.
Initially used for communications with family and friends, social networking has been credited with playing an integral part in the overthrowing of dictators in the Middle East, known as the Arab Spring in in 2011.
This is a U.S. list; There are sites in the top 20 not listed here, which are popular mainly in Europe, Asia or South America..
Most work on your laptop or PC but some like the Location services are designed for mobile devices (phones and tablets).

Top 25 Social Networking Sites

(xx) - U.S. Ranking amongst all web sites
[xx] - Millions of unique monthly U.S. visitors. Source: Quantcast a/o 2012-13
* The popularity of sites is constantly changing so "top 100" is used loosely here.

Sites:             Communication

Social networking:    
   Facebook - Facebook [210] (3)
   Linkedin - linkedin [46] (20)
     - myspace [70] (112)
   Google+ - Google+ [65]
   tagged Tagged [4] (415)
     Meet people, social gaming,
         topical discussion groups
   Hi5 my life [5] (2,926)
    - about.me (2,994)
    - orkut (1,344)
    - Plaxo (11K)
   
Instant Messaging (IM)- Chat 
   - AIM Formerly AOL Instant Messenger
    - FaceTime (Apple) 
   - iMessage/Messages (Apple) - Hangouts (Google) * 
   - WhatsApp  (no message charges)
   - Viber  (no message charges)
   - Facebook messenger  (no message charges)
 Old IMs:
  * Google Talk (Win)  and Google Chat 
  were replaced by Hangouts
  † Apple iChat was replaced by Messages
  See: 
  Best Messaging Apps: WhatsApp vs Skype vs 
  BBM vs iMessage vs Hangouts | Digital Trends
   Skype
   Tango
   GrooVe IP with  
   Yahoo Messenger 
   - Windows Live Messenger formerly MSN
  IRC IRC Internet Relay Chat

  Webinar Web Conferencing services
  Internet Phone Services
  IM and Chat
  
 Location-based social networks:
    Facebook places
    - foursquare (625)
    Google Latitude
    Yelp [17] (182)
    See location mapping here
    and Location-based service at Wikipedia
Blog Sites:
These are places you can set up your personal blog (blog hosting), not to be confused with the big blogers like
The Huffington Post, Engadget, TMZ, ...

    - blogspot or blogger [64] (12)
    - WordPress.com [18] (26)
    - LiveJournal [5] (76)
    - TypePad [10](105)
    - Xanga (768)
    - Technorati largest blog search engine
    - RSS - Subscribe to a blog (see below)

  Content Management Systems (CMS) used to set up blogs
    - Drupal
    - Wordpress.org
    - MovableType.org
    - joomla.org
    See Blogs

    Microblogging:  
       Twitter - twitter [93] (6)
      Tumblr - tumblr [44] (24)
       - foursquare  (625)
       - posterous 
      
  Events:
   - Meetup [8] (739)
   - Doodle Scheduling
    Yelp [17] (182)
  Eventful, The Hotlist,
  
Fundraising:
  - KickStarter - Fund a creative project (317)
  - indiegogo - Fund anything (35k)
  - Causes - Donations (744)
  - GoFundMe - Donations (2K)
  - CrowdRise - Donations for your cause (16K)
  
 Top Sites For Fundraising listed at Forbes | Mashable

  
Collaboration:
  Social bookmarking (or social tagging):
    - StumbleUpon [18] (108)
    - delicious [6] (272)
    - BuzzFeed [15] (632)
    - tweetmeme [5] (426)
    - Fark [1.8] (2,120)
    - google reader
    - friendfeed [1.5] (686)
    - BlinkList - Share and save your web links.
    - ChimeIn [0.3] (5,825)
   
   

  Social news (sometimes included in above):
   -  digg [25] (139) 
   - reddit [22] (35)
  mashable - Mashable [3] (206)
   - slashdot News for nerds [1.7] (1,254)
   - newsvine -[1.4] (3,388) news & bookmarks
  See news page

   
  Cloud document and note syncing:
   Google Drive - Google Drive
   Dropbox - dropbox (224)
   Evernote evernote (1,186)
   Evernote springpad
 
Groupware - Group collaboration software:
aka Task Management & Cloud Collaboration
Not generally considered social networking, I guess because there's a more formal structure and groups are usually smaller 12-100 people. They are typically set up for clubs, organizations and special interest groups.
They usually have an email list (or list server), calendar and document sharing.

Yahoo Groups - Yahoo Groups
Wiggio - Wiggio
Ning - Ning
GroupSpaces
Project Management:
Asana Asana
Trello Trello
JIRA JIRA
Basecamp Basecamp
See The Best Project Mgmt Software & Apps
See also:
Usenet Groups (NetNews)
Besides Yahoo groups what other site has groups? - Yahoo! Answers
Work in Groups - EContent Magazine
Group collaboration software


Multimedia:
  Livecasting:
   - YouTube [450] (2)
   Skype,  
   blip.tv
   
  Music and audio sharing:
    - Pandora Radio [28] (349)
    - Yahoo Music [27] 
    - LastFM [14] (552)
    - MySpace Music [6.5]
   Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
   Others
    
  Photography and art sharing:
  Pictures (Picasa) -  picasa [0.5] (663K)
  Pictures (Flickr) - flickr [10] (99)
  Pictures (Flickr) - Instagram [2.7] (476)
    (#4 app on smart phones)
   - pinterest [77] (7)
  Photobucket - Photobucket  [16] (64)
   SnapChat
  DeviantArt - DeviantArt
   Webshots  [5.8]
   Shutterfly [4.2]
   SmugMug [3.5]
   Note: You can also share photos on
   sites like Facebook, Tumblr and others
   See Photo Sharing
  
  Video sharing:
   - YouTube [450]
   - vimeo [18] (50)
   - Dailymotion France [27]
   - viddler
  Presentation sharing:
   - SlideShare
  Prezi, scribd, 
  
  Webinars - Internet Conferencing:
These range from simple multi-user chats on Skype to on-line presentations where power point presentations are observed by all participants, to group collaboration where multiple people can update a document in the cloud.
See Webinar Web Conferencing services
 
Forums - Discussion Groups:
These are typically not thought of as social networks because they are not individual based but topic based.
Google Groups - Google Groups is the current incarnation of pre-WWW services usenet / netnews which became dejavu.
There are thousands of Internet forums or discussion groups today. Technology (software and hardware support), video games, sports, music, fashion, genealogy, religion, and politics are popular areas for forum themes.
There is no dominant forum platform. phpBB, FUDforum and others provide software you can download to your own web site.
Proboards, ZetaBoards, Tal.ki and others will host your forum on their web sites.

Some popular forums:

www.artsandlettersdaily.com - Intellectual
www.cafemom.com - Mothers
www.joblo.com/forums - Movie forum
www.muzicforums.com - Music genforum.genealogy.com/surnames - Genealogy
www.androidtablets.net/forum
androidforums.com
www.ipadforums.net
www.uspoliticsonline.com
www.forumboard.in/forum.php

Others:
  Community Support Sites - Patient blogs for sharing progress on an illness.
         Top 15 Most Popular Dating Websites. See Online dating

Social networking for Mom's:
  Top 10 Social Networking Sites for Women at mashable.com
     - CafeMom - Moms Connecting About Pregnancy, Babies, Home, Health, ... (1,492)
     -  iVillage.com: Health, Beauty, Pregnancy, Entertainment, Women's Community, ...
Community Q&A:
- WikiAnswers
- Ask

Top 15 Most Popular Reference Websites

- Yahoo! Answers
- Quora
- eHow

Information Aggregators/Personal web portal:
    - Netvibes 
    My Yahoo!
    iGoogle


Miscelaneous:
 - Windows Live™ Spaces was transitioned to WordPress.com in 2010
 - Fanpop - Fan clubs for everything. - (1,326)
 - ycombinator Hacker News
Hi5 Hi5 In 2008 it was as one of the top social networks,
    In 2010 it was bought by tagged.
 - www.apple.com/icloud - Syncs music, pictures, calendar, etc.
              between iPhone, iPad, iMac, MacBook, ... (Was MobileMe)
  You will often see the RSS (Really Simple Syndication) icon associated with SNS.
RSS is not a SNS, but many blogs are set up with RSS feeds so you get updates automatically.
See Using Social Media Sites As "RSS Readers" - Online Collaboration
Design Tools: - designmoo A website dedicated to giving designers a place to share resources. Users can post fonts, icons, ... - designfloat Web design news & tips - behance.net An online portfolio platform for creative professionals, including photography, graphic design, illustration, ... - feedburner.google.com a web feed management provider - ShareThis - Provides code to add to your web site to create a share button. Aimed at advertisers and publishers. BitTorrent - Sharing and Download engine for music, software, ... Spokeo - Lists Social Network sites for individuals and has a list of Social Netw Sites Major Social Network sites bebo Hi5 - Multiply allows users to share videos, photos (unlimited), blogs as well as shop and sell in a large online marketplace. bought by Tagged. Multiply - Multiply allows users to share videos, photos (unlimited), blogs as well as shop and sell in a large online marketplace. Answers.com is a wiki Q&A combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedias. Buzznet is a photo, journal, and video-sharing social media network. Members participate in communities that are created around ideas, events and interests. IGN is an entertainment website that focuses on video games, films, music and other media. IMVU is a social game and entertainment site where millions of people meet, chat, play games and have fun. Netlog is a European youth-oriented online community available in over 20 languages where users create profiles, join groups, post blogs and media. BlackPlanet is a social networking site targeted to the African American community with music, jobs, forums, chat, photos, dating personals and groups. Kongregate is an online gaming site where users can upload and play flash-based games, earn points and rewards for high scores and discuss in user forums. Rankings
* Rankings come from several sources, Alexa, Quantcast,
and SiteAnalytics @ Compete.com
so results may be inconsistent. They are only general guidelines.


A Case Study in Social Media Demographics | OnlineMBA Mar., 2012 SNS uses,
67% - Stay in touch with friends
64% - Stay in touch with family
50% - Reconnect with old friends
14% - Connect with people who share similar
      interests
 9% - Make new friends
 5% Read comments from celebrities, athletes
    or politicians
 3% - Find potentially romantic partners

 
At "The new normal in the digital age", Pew's Internet & American Life Project says,
Networked creators are everywhere
(two-thirds of adults; three-quarters of teens)

66% of int. users are social networking site users
55% share photos
37% contribute rankings and ratings
33% create content tags
30% share personal creations
26% post comments on sites and blogs
15% have personal website
15% are content remixers
14 %are bloggers
13% use Twitter
  6% location services
  9% allow location awareness from social media

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project

           

According to Nielssn in 2011 social media represents 22.5% of the time Americans spend online. They spend 9.8% on online gaming, and just 7.6% for email.
On a typical day, 43% of online adults use social networking.

According to a 2012 Pew study 63% of teens exchange text messages, while only 6% exchange email.

There were 245 Million Internet Users in the U.S. in Feb., 2012.
The percent using each Social Network Service (SNS)  was:

64% Facebook      
26% Twitter      
25% BlogSpot      
15% Linkedin        
 6% MySpace  
Note: These kind of stats are tricky. Average users tend to access SNS sites more frequently (typically several times a day) than others such as shopping sites, so total visits may be a higher percentage. The number of visitors in any given time period may be lower, because a few people people visit infrequently.

Social networking sites accounted for 5% of internet traffic in 2006 (when MySpace accounted for most of it).
Source: Social Networking Sites in 2006 | SearchRank Blog
In May 2011 SNS accounted for 16% (Mashable) to 22% (Nielsen) of time spent online.
In 2011 SNS was the #5 most popular online activity (65% of Internet users do it) behind, email (92%), searching, news and shopping (71%), according to Pew Internet & American Life Project


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Reference:
eBiz|MBA top 15 Social Networking, Video, Blogs, Social Bookmarking, Image Hosting, Music, Dating
SocialTimes - Your Social Media Source
The Top Social Networking Sites
Top social networking sites in the World
Top 10 Best Social Networks on Pikimal
Social Media at Wikipedia
Wed usage stats: Alexa, SiteAnalytics @ Compete.com and Quantcast
List of social networking websites with user count - Wikipedia
How Three Entrepreneurs (And One Huge Company) Built Empires On Social Commerce | LinkedIn
What is a Blog? : @ProBlogger
"Students Addicted to Social Media - U. Maryland Study". April, 2010.
The Perils of Social Media Connectivity: You Just Can't Quit - DailyFinance
What are the best organizational tools for groups? - O'Reilly Answers
Cloud Computing
Social Media at Mashablle.com
Americans Use Social Media More Than Anything Else Online according to Nielson Sept, 2011
Social Networking at the The Pew Internet & American Life Project
Top 5 Instant Messaging Clients @ Web-Abet
Klout measures your influence on your social networks.
Social Networking links at the Sierra Club
Icon Search Engine | Iconfinder
Peer-to-peer (P2P) Digital Media
Web Icons

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last updated 1 Oct 2013