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Toughness is the property that enables a material to withstand shock and to be deformed without rupturing.

Brittleness - A brittle metal is one that breaks or shatters before it deforms.

Ductility - Ductility is the property that enables a material to stretch, bend, or twist without cracking or breaking.

Malleability - A malleable material is one that can be stamped, hammered, forged, pressed, or rolled into thin sheets.

Corrosion Resistance is the property of a metal that gives it the ability to withstand attacks from atmospheric, chemical, or electrochemical conditions. Corrosion, sometimes called oxidation, is illustrated by the rusting of iron.

Source: Fundamentals of Professional Welding

Steel vs Aluminum
Property Steel Aluminum
Density 7.9 tons/cum (m3) 2.7 tons/cum
Melting Point 1370-1510 °C 500-660 °C
Yield Strength 220-1570 MPa1, 2 28-503 MPa3
Tensile Strength4 400-1720 MPa 69-572 MPa3
Coef. Thermal
12*10-6 per °C 24*10-6 per °C
Cost $550-$774/ton $2,000/ton
1. The lower numbers for steel strength are for Steel Alloy A36 - Hot rolled
  the higher numbers are for Steel Alloy 4140 - Oil-quenched and tempered (@315 °C)

2. Million Pascals: MPa = N/sq mm; 100 MPa = 14,500 psi; psi = pounds per square inch Ksi = 1,000 psi

3. The addition of alloying elements like manganese, silicon, copper and magnesium can increase the strength properties of aluminum and produce an alloy with properties tailored to particular applications.

4. Tensile Strength is also referred to as Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Ultimate Strength
  It is the maximum stress a metal can withstand before it fails.
Yield Strength (YS) is also referred to as Tensile Strength, Yield.
  When a metal reaches it's yield point it will continue to deform without any corresponding increase in load.

Aluminum as a Structural Material | uiowa.edu
Tensile / Yield Strength of Steel Chart
Bolts and screws here
Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for common Materials

Properties of Metals:
Property Titanium 304
Aluminium Magnesium Nickel Copper
Atomic No. 22 -- 13 12 28 29
Atomic Wt. 47.9 -- 26.97 24.32 58.69 63.57
Specific Gravity 4.5 7.9 2.7 1.7 8.9 8.9
Linear thermal expansion coefficient (/*C) 8.4X10-6 17X10-6 23X10-6 25X10-6 15X10-6 17X10-6
Specific heat (cal/gr/*C) 0.124 0.12 0.21 0.24 0.11 0.092
Thermal conductivity coefficient (cal/cm2/sec/*C/cm) 0.041 0.039 0.49 0.38 0.22 0.92
Specific electrical resistance
55 72 2.7 4.3 9.5 1724
Electrical conductivity (%IACA) 3.1 2.4 64 40 18 100
Young's modulus (kg/mm2)1 10850 20403 7050 4570 21000 11000
Poisson's ratio 0.34 0.3 0.33 0.35 0.30 0.34
Tensile Strength (MPa) 345-828 703-1241 428
1. Young's Modulus - Elasticity (E)
Source: Titanium - Comparison of Properties with Other Metals

Total Materia - The world's most comprehensive materials database
Material Strength | here
Bolts and screws here
Fastener Material | fastenal.com
Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for common Materials
Fundamentals of Professional Welding
Aircraft Materials, Processes and Hardware | FAA.gov
The Difference Between Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metal | Metal Supermarkets - Steel, Aluminum, Stainless, Hot-Rolled, Cold-Rolled, Alloy, Carbon, Galvanized, Brass, Bronze, Copper

last updated 1 May 2017