I've been collecting terms for years and haven't attempted to define all of them yet. This is a start.
Advent - The first season of the Christian church year, leading up to Christmas and including the four preceding Sundays.
What Is An Apostle? | BibleStudyTools.com
1 Corinthians 15:9
Ash Wednesday The beginning of Lent, 40 days before Easter.
Atonement - the act of atoning for sin or wrongdoing (especially appeasing a deity).
Catholic - Upper case Catholic refers to the Roman Catholic church. The largest of the Christian denominations with 1.3 billion members. The only main Christian until the Easter Orthodox split of in 1054> The big split occurred during the Protestant Reformation in 1517
catholic: All-embracing. Universal
Christmas: The Christian holiday celebrating Jesus's birth in Bethlehem; celebrated by Catholics and Protestants on December 25 and by Orthodox Christians on January 7 each year. <>>P>Covenant
Disciples - Generally the 12 who traveled with Jesus.
Double predestination - God predestines some, but not all, to eternal salvation, so he predestines others to eternal punishment derived from the Book of Revelation. Many theologians argue that it is not Biblical in nature.
Easter: The most sacred day in the Christian calendar; Easter celebrates the Resurrection of Jesus, a sign of victory over sin and death.
Easter is preceded by Lent, a period of fasting and penitence in preparation for Easter, which begins on Ash Wednesday and lasts 40 days (not counting Sundays).
Many say the date was based on renewal that comes in Spring.
Ecclesiology In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
See Evangelical Christians
See also Pentecostal, Fundamentalist, Born-again,
Fundamentalists -T hough they share many of the evangelicals' beliefs, also fiercely insist on the "verbal inerrancy" of the Bible, and this has led them into noisy conflicts over creation and evolution. William Jennings Bryan, who defended a literal reading of Genesis at the famous Scopes "monkey trial" in 1925, was a classic fundamentalist.
Gnosticism - The doctrine of salvation by knowledge.
Holy Communion: The Christian sacrament commemorating the sacrifice of Christ in which the faithful eat bread (symbolizing the body of Christ) and drink wine (symbolizing the blood of Christ); the ritual is based on Jesus's final Passover meal with the disciples.
Question: The Bible (Matthew 12:40 ) says Jesus rose on the third day, but there are only 2 days between Good Friday and Easter Sunday.
Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry | CARM.org explains it as follows.
Jesus of Nazareth - Jesus Christ: (c. 6-4 B.C.E.-c. 34 C.E.). Founder of Christianity whose followers believe him to be the Messiah or the Christ and the son of God. The four Gospels of the New Testament tell the stories of key events of his life, including his birth as a Jew to the Virgin Mary; his baptism; his teachings and miraculous deeds; and finally, his arrest, Crucifixion, and Resurrection.
The period of fasting or abstinence observed in the 40 days before Easter, not counting Sundays, beginning with Ash Wednesday.
Liturgy: A general term used to designate the whole procedure of ritual actions and prayers used in religious services, in particular in the context of the Jewish and Christian traditions.
Mecca: The most sacred city in Islam; located in Saudi Arabia, Mecca is the site of the Ka'bah and the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad.
mosque: The Islamic place of worship during the five daily prayers and, especially, the Friday noon prayer.
Predestination: The divine foreordaining of all that will happen, especially with regard to the salvation of some and not others. It has been particularly associated with the teachings of St. Augustine of Hippo and of Calvin.
Protestantism - The second largest form of Christianity behind Catholicism. It was started out of the Reformation, with collectively 40% of all Christians worldwide and 46% in the US,
as opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, the largest Christian Church worldwide.
The largest in the US (2010-2014) are:
Baptist: Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical) 17M and American Baptist 5M
Lutheran: Evangelical Lutheran 4.6M and Lutheran-Missouri Synod 3.5M
Presbyterian: U.S.A 1.5M* and Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical) 1.3M
* From 2002 to 2015 the Presbyterian Church U.S.A. has declined from 2.5M to 1.5M ; This is in part from the general decline in mainline Protestantism and in part from conservative churches which have moved to startup evangelical Presbyterian denominations.
Most mainline churches have declined. From 1972 to 2010 the number of people who say they are protestants has declined from 62% to 51%, Catholics have stayed about the same and people saying they have no religion has increased from 7% to 18%.
See Christian Denominations here
and Protestantism in the United States - Wikipedia
Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation)
Sabbath: The weekly day of rest and worship observed by Jews and Christians. This sacred time commemorating God's day of rest after creation begins at sundown on Friday for Jews; Christians moved the Sabbath to Sunday, the day of Jesus's Resurrection.
Satan: The biblical name for the devil; the same figure in Islam is known by the Arabic name Shaytan
Torah: The Jewish designation for the first five books of the Bible, also called the Law or the Pentateuch. The Torah can also stand for the entire tradition of learning gleaned from the Bible as a whole.
transubstantiation: The doctrine that the bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Christ when the priest blesses these elements during Holy Communion Catholic Church.
Trinity: The Christian understanding of the one true God who is manifest in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
To be added:
ProofTexting or proof-texting - The practice of using isolated quotations from a document to establish a proposition. Using discrete quotations is generally seen as decontextualized.
"God of the Gaps"
Twelfth Night is a festival in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany and concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas.
Epiphany Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles, The Sunday occurring between 2 and 8 January. The visit of the Magi to the Baby Jesus.
Sanhedrin - Ruling council
Sadducees - Wealthy and powerful, chief priests and high priest. Held a majority of the Sanhedrin Liberal Only the written word came from God
Pharisees - gave oral tradition equal authority to the written Word of God Enforce the law http://www.gotquestions.org/Sadducees-Pharisees.html
Eucharist - Communion
Transubstantiation - The Roman Catholic doctrine that, in the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and the wine used in the sacrament is changed into the substance of the Body and the Blood of Jesus
* "Born-again" is the broadest category. It includes the 39 percent of the American population who claim they have had a personal experience of Christ. Their political ideas span the spectrum, and Jimmy Carter is not the only born-again political liberal.
Pentecostals, by far the fastest-growing wing of Christianity today, share most evangelical beliefs, but for them all theology is secondary. What is most important is an immediate encounter with the Holy Spirit in a style of worship that is exuberant and even ecstatic. Aimee Semple McPherson was the first Pentecostal preacher to achieve celebrity status in America.
"Charismatics" (the word's root means "gift of grace") are people who practice a Pentecostal form of worship but remain in their own Catholic or Protestant churches.
Absolution Advent Affirmation Atonement Catacism Christian reconstructionist Covenant Ecumenical Epiphany Evagelical Faith Grace Hope justification laturgical Love Mercy Piety Proverb Redemption Rightousness salvation Santification Secular Transsubstantion
Types of Christians
* "Evangelical" describes a theological position, one recognizing not only the need for such a personal experience with God but also the unique religious authority of Scripture and an obligation to share one's faith with others. Billy Graham is the paradigmatic evangelical.
* "Fundamentalists," though they share many of the evangelicals' beliefs, also fiercely insist on the "verbal inerrancy" of the Bible, and this has led them into noisy conflicts over creation and evolution. William Jennings Bryan, who defended a literal reading of Genesis at the famous Scopes "monkey trial" in 1925, was a classic fundamentalist.
* Pentecostals, by far the fastest-growing wing of Christianity today, share most evangelical beliefs, but for them all theology is secondary. What is most important is an immediate encounter with the Holy Spirit in a style of worship that is exuberant and even ecstatic. Aimee Semple McPherson was the first Pentecostal preacher to achieve celebrity status in America.
* "Charismatics" (the word's root means "gift of grace") are people who practice a Pentecostal form of worship but remain in their own Catholic or Protestant churches.
* Orthodox - Conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church.
* Eastern Orthodox church - Second largest, behind the Catholic, with 250 million members. It has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern Europe, and the Near East, including Slav and Greek peoples.
* Christian reconstructionist - fundamentalist Reformed theonomic movement. An important influence on the Christian Right in the United States.
Christian Calendar Christian time periods The Christian calendar (also known as the liturgical calendar or ecclesiastical calendar) is an annual schedule that commemorates certain days and seasons related to the history of salvation. Some denominations—including Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists, and Presbyterians—observe most of the traditional calendar, while other denominations—including Baptists and most nondenominational evangelical congregations—tend to focus on only a few dates, such as Christmas and Easter.