last updated 8 Aug 2019
I found a variety of sources for name frequency none of which agreed.
ForBears.io, a site for family history and genealogy research, had the most complete list. More
 
Rnk Char-
acter
Name Population
(Millions)
1 Li or Lee 108 M
(Li 105 M, Lee 2.8 M)
2 Wang 107 M
3 Zhang 98 M
4 Chen 98 M
5 Liu 74 M
6 देवी Devi 71 M
7 Yang 47 M
8 Huang 36 M
9 सिंह Singh 36 M
10 Wu 35 M
11 कुमार Kumar 32 M
12 Xu 31 M
13 Ali 29 M
14 Zhao 29 M
15 Zhou 27 M
16 امان خان Khan 24 M
17 Nguyễn 22 M (Vietnamese)
18 Ma 21 M
19 Lu 21 M
20 Sun 20 M
21 Maung 20 M
22 Zhu 20 M
23 Kim 19 M
24 Yu 19 M
25 Lin 19 M
#26-100 He, Hu, Jiang, Guo, Ahmed, Khatun, Luo, Gao, Akter, Zheng, Tang, Das, Wei, Liang, Islam, Shi, Song, Xie, Han, Garcia, Mohamed, da Silva, Deng, Bai, Tan, Yan, Kaur, Feng, Hernandez, Rodriguez, Cao, Hussain, Lopez, Hassan, Gonzalez, Martinez, Ceng, Peng, Ahmad, Cai, Xiao, Pan, Cheng, Yuan, Yadav, Perez, Su, Rahman, I, Dong, Fan, Tian, Ram, Ye, Fu, Tran, Hossain, Ibrahim, Kumari, Du, Sanchez, Yao, Pak, Mohammad, Jin, Zhong, Ding, Le, dos Santos, Yin, Pereira, Lal, Ren, Silva, Liao
30 Ahmed 16 M
45 García 11 M
46 Mohamed 11 M
54 Hernández 9 M
55 Rodriguez 9 M
57 Hussain 9 M
60 González 9 M
64 Ahmad 8 M
71 Perez 8 M
86 Sanchez 5 M
89 Mohammad 6 M
99 Silva 6 M
#101-150 Mandal, Cui, Sharma, Fang, Ferreira, Shah, Begum, Ray, Meng, Qiu, Dai, Ramirez, Mondal, Kang, Patel, Hong, Gomez, Alves, Gu, Wen, Jia, Pham, Smith, Sah, Xia, Mohammed, Hasan, Diaz, Hou, Alam, Xiong, Zou, Prasad, Muhammad, Qin, Ji, Choe, Gong, Ghosh, Chang, Uddin, Flores, de Oliveira, Xue, Lei, Rodrigues, Torres, Patil, Diallo, Qi
105 Ferriera 5 M
103 Sharma 5 M
106 Shah 5 M
112 Ramirez 5 M
115 Patel 4.9 M
117 Gomez 4.8 M
123 Smith 4.6 M
142 Flores 3.8 M
#151-200 Cruz, Lai, Gomes, Hussein, Ramos, Santos, Fernandez, Duan, de Souza, An, Bibi, Ri, Johnson, Shaikh, Xiang, Pal, Morales, Reyes, Bakhash, Tao, Gupta, Williams, Jimenez, Kong, Biswas, Mao, Chong, Hao, Wan, Lan, Sahu, Gutierrez, Saha, Shao, Lee, Ruiz, Guan, Mo, Abbas, Saleh, Roy, Qian, Jones, Khatoon, Sarkar, Oliveira, Brown, Castillo, Martin, Alvarez
154 Hussein 3.6 M
156 Santos 3.5 M
157 Fernandez 3.4 M
163 Johnson 3.4 M
171 Gupta 3 M
172 Williams 3.0 M
175 Müller/
Miller
2.9 M
Müller 1.1 M, Miller 1.8 M
193 Jones 2.7 M
197 Brown 2.6 M
199 Martin 2.6 M
200 Alvarez 2.6 M
225 Thomas 2.3 M
282 Wilson 1.8 M
330 Tesfayee 1.5 M
339 Abebe 1.5 M
339 Abebe 1.5 M
416 Salem 1.2 M
439 Juma 1.2 M
539 Chaudhary 994 K
561 King 972 K
650 Jian/
Chien
872 K
778 Lawal 684 K
820 Mwangi 652 K
976 Rossi 550 K
1,404 כֹּהֵן Cohen 392 K
3,573 Ait 158 K
6,461 Hellar/
Heller
87 K
6,930 McBride 82 K
8,000 Sykes
Sikes
80 K
10,441 Finley 54 K
6,930 Woodley 19 K
Gard 12 K
Sources:
Most Common Surnames in Earth | Earth Genealogy Resources & Vital Records | Forbears.io
See more on Forbears.io below. THE WORLD GEOGRAPHY: 10 of the Most Common Surnames in the World | TheWorldGeography.com
Most Common Last Names by Country : MapPorn
Buy Region:
Asia:
China: Wang
India: Kumar
Japan: Sato
S. Korea: Kim
Taiwan: Chen
Phillipeans: Tan
Malaysia: Tan
Vietnam: Nguyễn
Middle East:
Pakistan: Khan
Afghanistan: Khan
Saudia Arabia: Khan
Iran: Ahmadi
Iraq: Mohammed
Syria: Ahmad
Israel: Cohen
Turkmenistan: Mamedov
Uzbekistan: Kim
Russia: Smirnov
Slovenia: Novak
Croatia: Horvat
Hungary: Nagy

Europe: Turkey: Yilmaz, Hovhannisyan Greece: Papadopoulos Italy: Rossi Germany: Müller Switzerland: Müller Austria: Gruber Czechia: Novák Poland: Nowak Belgium: Peeters Netherlands: De Jong France: Martin Spain: García England: Smith Scotland: Smith N. Ireland: Wilson Ireland: Murphy Africa: Egypt: Mohamed Libya: Salem Algeria: Ait Morocco: Ait Sudan: Ahmed Ethiopia: Tesfaye Somalia: Abdikaím Kenya: Mwangi Tanzania: Juma Congo: Llunga South Africa: Naidoo Nigeria: Lawal Maii: Moussa Ghana: Mensah
N. America USA: Smith Canada: Smith Mexico: Garcia
C. America Guatemala: López Honduras: Martinez El Salvador: Hernández Nicaragua: López
S. America: Columbia: Rodríguez Venezuela: González Brazil: Silva Ecuador: Zambrano Chile: González Argentina: Fernández Peru: Quispe

Forbears.io:
Forbears lists itself as a site for family history and genealogy research.
It has information on 11 million surnames, with number of people, frequency rank, countries, meaning of the name, etc.
I couldn't find an explanation of how their gather and consolidate their data.
It gives a lot of variations for each name. e.g. King, with 971,794 occurrences.
It also lists 75 variations including the following with over 1,000 global occurrences:
Qing, Keng, Ching, Kiong, Kng, Kingue, küng, Kyng, Cing, Kink.
The occurrences for these names are not counted in the 971,794 occurrences of King.
It appears to select names based on an algorithm which selects names that sound similar.
There are other Asian names e.g. Khan which can be translated into "King" in english, but are not listed under King.

See
Genealogy Trot: A look at Forebears.io
Here’s a Global Heatmap of People with Your Last Name - VICE


Also:
See:
List of most common surnames in Europe - Wikipedia
What Are The Most Common Surnames In The World? | vequill.com
Links:
Phonetic Translation (Romanization)
Languages
Origin of Chinese Names (Last Names or Surnames, 中國百家姓氏來源
lookup names in Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Yutopian Chinese Culture Search