Don's Home Reference 21st Century Glossary of Terms
Under Construction
In 2016-17 I noticed a lot of new terminology from things like the 2016 election campaign and advances in computing.
Some are not new, but old terms which are coming into more common use.

It is not a complete list and definitions need to be tweaked, but it's a start.

  • AI - Artificial intelligence
    The idea that a computer could think like a human Timeline:
    1950's- AI (Artificial Intelligence) - Expert Systems 
            Decision trees, rule-based systems
    1980's- Machine Learning - Neural Networks
    2010's- Cognitive Computing - Deep Learning
    
    See AI for more.
  • Alt-Right - A loose group of people with far right ideologies who reject mainstream conservatism in the United States.
    Made popular during the 2016 election campaign.
  • Antifa - Anti-Fascist - Gained notoriety after the White Nationalist clash in Charlottesville in 2017.
  • Autonomous Car
  • Bitcoin - A digital Currency.
  • BI - Business Intelligence - The strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis of business information.
    Related Terms: Data Mining, Big Data, infographics.
  • Big Data - Data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them.
    Lately, the term "big data" tends to refer to the use of predictive analytics, user behavior analytics.
    Related terms: machine intelligence and deep computing.
    The term has been in use since the 1990s, with some giving credit to John Mashey for coining it.
  • Biome - Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate. "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats
  • Blockchain - A list of digital records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data.
    Originally developed for digigal currencies (e.g. bitcoin), it is now being adapter for other uses such as medical records, complex financial transaction tracking, supply chain tracking, ...
  • CRISPR - Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat.
    CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops.
    See What Is CRISPR? | LiveScience.com
  • Cloud - A metaphor for the Internet. Cloud computing, Cloud storage.
  • Deep Learning - The latest improvement of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Deep-learning software is an attempt to mimic the activity in layers of neurons in the neocortex, the wrinkly 80 percent of the brain where thinking occurs. It analyzes large data sets to teach itself. Something like neuro networks but more complex.
    AI and Neural Networks never lived up to their promise, but better algorithms and more powerful computers are allowing a jump in AI functionality. Things like language processing, object recognition are some of the applications.
    See Deep Learning - MIT Technology Review
    and The Difference Between AI, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning? | NVIDIA Blog
  • FAANG - Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix, and Alphabet's Google; The five most popular and best performing tech stocks in the stock market.
    Jim Cramer coined the term FANG (without Apple). Others used FAMGA - Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, Google, Amazon.
    Jim Cramer coined the term around 2015 for mega-cap tech stocks.
    Now Alphabet (Holding company for google and a bunch of smaller companies working on leading edge technology.
  • Fake News - Made-up stuff, masterfully manipulated to look like credible journalistic reports that are easily spread online to large audiences willing to believe the fictions and spread the word.
    The US intelligence community has said that Russia interfered in the 2016 election by using things like fake social media accounts and adds to create fake news favoring Trump.
    Since the election President Trump has been using it refer to any traditional news he doesn't agree with.
    See:
    How Fake News Goes Viral - The New York Times A 2018 Ohio State study suggests fake news might have won Donald Trump the 2016 election - The Washington Post
  • Genetic Engineering -
  • Genome - A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. See Molecular Biology
  • Geoengineering - A blanket term for a number of proposed methods for contracting climate change. Spraying particles such as sulfur dioxide, alumina, or calcium carbonate into the stratosphere.to scatter sunlight, or making coastal clouds more reflective.
  • Machine Learning
  • Meme - An idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture". The word meme was coined by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene.
    Derogatory, sometimes funny, images and ideas were rampant and spread via twitter and political discussion boards and other Internet means during the 2016 election. The spread of memes was referred to as internet trolling (above).
  • Neural Networks
  • Pharmacogenetics - The branch of pharmacology concerned with the effect of genetic factors on reactions to drugs.
  • Psychographics - The study and classification of people according to their attitudes, aspirations, and other psychological criteria, especially in market research.
  • STEM - Science, Technology, Enginering & Medicine
  • Troll - A troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response.

Links:
Words made popular in the 2016 election campaign
Analytics and Big Data Glossary for the Enterprise
Oxford English Dictionary (OED) updates: June 2017 | March 2017 | December 2016 | September 2016 | Previous updates

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last updated 23 Aug 2017