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Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.
In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein sat for the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich (later the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, ETH). He failed to reach the required standard in the general part of the examination, but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics.
He was married several times. See Marriages and children wikipedia
In 1900, Einstein's paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritaetserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik. On 30 April 1905, Einstein completed his thesis, with Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics, serving as pro-forma advisor. As a result, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zuerich, with his dissertation entitled, "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions.
Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post.
He became famous at the age of 26 for a series of four papers in 1905, his "annus mirabilis" (miracle year).
General relativity was the first, and remains the only, theory capable of uniting space, time, mass, energy, motion, and light in a grand vision of the nature and the fate of the cosmos.
By 1912, Einstein was actively seeking a theory in which gravitation was explained as a geometric phenomenon.
In 1917 he turned to a consideration of the spacetime structure of the whole universe. He then encountered a problem. Einstein was assuming that, when suitably averaged over many stars, the universe is uniform and essentially static, but the equations of general relativity did not seem to allow a time-independent solution for a universe with a uniform distribution of matter. So Einstein modified his equations, by including a new term involving a quantity that he called the cosmological constant. Then it was discovered that the universe is not static, but expanding. Einstein came to regret that he had needlessly mutilated his original theory. It may also have bothered him that he had missed pre- dicting the expansion of the universe.
GR predicted the deflection of light by massive bodies.
In 1921 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his 1909 work showing that the photon carries momentum as well as energy and that electromagnetic radiation must have both particle-like and wave-like properties if Planck's law holds; this was a forerunner of the principle of wave-particle duality.
In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler.
He went to England and worked to get Jewish scientists out of Germany.
In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey)