Divisions of Philosophy:
Metaphysics
Concerned with explaining the world. Namely, it is the study of being or reality. It answers questions such as: What is real? Is it natural or supernatural?
Epistemology
Studies the nature and scope of knowledge.
Ethics
Attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong.
Aesthetics
Ponders art and such qualities as beauty, sublimity, and even ugliness and dissonance
Logic
The study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers.

Other Concepts:
Freedom
Nihilism
Given its name by Ivan Turgenev in his novel Fathers and Sons (1861). Nihilism stressed the need to destroy existing economic and social institutions.
Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world and especially human existence of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value.
Nietzsche, Kant, Kierkegaard See wikepedia
Ontology
Branch of metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.>>Ontology is the theory of objects and their ties.
Ontology provides criteria for distinguishing various types of objects (concrete and abstract, existent and non-existent, real and ideal, independent and dependent) and their ties (relations, dependences and predication).

Philosophers:
A few of the more well known ones:
  • Socrates 469 BC-399 BC
  • Plato (428BC - 348BC), The Republic, 380 BC
  • Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC) - His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics.
  • http://maps.google.com/maps?q=lodging&hl=en&sll=41.523644,-90.577637&sspn=0.411261,0.508118&vpsrc=0&t=m&z=10
  • Epicurus 307 BC
  • Lucretius 99-55 BC - De rerum natura, translated into English as On the Nature of Things
    (Lucretius was an important influence on Pierre Gassendi), and in the efforts of various figures of the Enlightenment era to construct a new Christian humanism.
  • John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804)
  • Søren Kierkegaard (1813 - 1855)
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844-1900)
  • Jacques Derrida (b. 1930)
Portraits of Philosophers and Thinkers, Guillem Ramos-Poquí
Christian:
See:
Philosopy at wikipedia
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy at U. Tenn. AllAboutPhilosophy.org a religious perspective.
Introduction to Philosophy at Methodist College

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last updated 4 Feb 2006