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See Wood Heating values for other varieties. E.g. there are 9 varieties of red oak with different heat values.
* BTU's are Millions/Cord. The values for a species vary by source. Examples:
STANDARD CORD which is a neatly stacked pile eight feet long by four feet wide by four feet high with a volume of 128 cubic feet. Since wood can't be stacked without air space, only 60-110 cubic feet of the 128 may be solid wood. (Usually it runs between 80-90 cubic feet with more solid wood content in round wood than split.) A FACE CORD is also called a RICK or a PALLET or a SHORT CORD is a stack of logs measuring 8 feet by 4 feet by whatever the length of the logs happens to be (Sometimes defined as 1/2 cord, but may be 1/3 cord if in 16" lengths). A TIER is 1/3 cord
Standard fireplace length is 16"|
A full sized pickup load is approx. 1/2 cord.
A ford ranger load is approx. 1/4 cord.
The back of a jeep with the seat removed holds about 1/6 cord
A cord of white oak weighs about 2 tons
A cord of pine weighs about 2,500 pounds
Pound for pound, all woods create the about the same amount of BTUs. Does this mean that a cord of seasoned pine puts out the same amount of heat as a cord of seasoned hickory? No! The hickory will produce twice the amount of BTU's of the pine because it weights roughly twice as much as the pine.
Before lighting a fire, make sure the thermostat is turned down so air heated by the central furnace will not go up the chimney. The easiest and best fire for either a stove or fireplace is achieved with a mixture of softwoods for easy igniting with hardwoods for longer burning and good coaling qualities. A cardinal rule of fireplace management is to keep a thick bed for glowing coals that drop through. The coals yield a steady heat and aid in igniting fresh fuel as it is added. Keep the fire burning by adding small amounts of firewood at regular intervals. A small, hot fire is much better than a large, roaring blaze because it burns more completely and produces less creosote.
To achieve a long-lasting fire that will heat the house overnight or while you are away, rake the coals toward the air inlet and use larger pieces of wood placed compactly in the firebox. Placing the pieces close together prevents the heat and flames from penetrating the load and saves the buried pieces for later in the burn cycle. Fully open the air inlets for 5 to 20 minutes, depending on the size of the load and the moisture content of the fuel. When the outer pieces have a thick layer of charcoal, reduce the airflow in stages to the desired level.
With some of the new highly efficient combustion stoves, you may have to alter this procedure slightly.
BTU Ratings: Heating with wood - characteristics at U. Nebraska Firewood Ratings and Info at Rutland Products About Firewood at sepulveda.com Firewood at Fogazzo wood fired ovens. Olson About Bruning Wood at EcoFire.comPublications:
Fully dried wood: 8,000 - 9,500 BTU/pound
Air-seasoned (20% moisture content) wood: 5,500 - 8,500 BTU/pound
Green wood (15-55% moisture, see below): 3230 Btu/pound
Green wood gives off much less BTUs than seasoned wood, for it takes a lot of the heat energy to evaporate the moisture out of the green wood.
Energy Efficiency values:
Stoves at U. Idaho
See Home Heating Costs for comparisons with Gas, Oil and Electric.
Wood burning stoves and fireplaces
Smoke is the source of creosote, and older uncertified stoves and fireplaces release 40 to 80 grams of smoke per hour; new EPA-certified stoves produce only 2 to 5 grams of smoke per hour.
See: Wood Burning Stoves at U. Idaho
Moisture content varies by type:
Trees harvested in the fall, winter or spring will contain more water than those cut in the summer.
It takes at least six months of drying (providing wood is cut to length and stored to permit good air circulation) to bring the moisture content down to 30 percent, and a full year to get it to the desired 20 percent moisture. Source U. N. Hampshire
Ovendried wood will have about 12% moisture.
The Heating Value (HV) (Btu/lb.) can be calculated as:
Wood cut to length dries more rapidly. The moisture is most effectively removed through the cut cells at the ends of each piece. Wood greater than eight inches in diameter and four feet in length dries very slowly.
If you live in the northern climes, a good time to split the wood is when the it is frozen in winter. It gives a cleaner cut and takes less force to do the same work.
In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals. See Lodgepole Pine at US Forest Svc.
Prices for smoking hardwoods will vary with your location. Prices are as of early 1998 include delivery and splitting. Where there is lots of hardwood, like in parts of the south, hickory can cost you as little as $75 a cord. In Carlsbad NM, you can buy a cord of pecan for $110. In the hill country of Texas, you can get a cord of oak for $80. In Southern California, where hardwoods are scarce, a cord of oak or mesquite costs $400, a cord of almond about $280. In Virginia, a mixed cord of hickory and oak runs $135. In central Illinois, a cord of mostly oak with some hickory and maple mixed in runs $90-100. In western Connecticut, a cord of oak with a little hickory and maple thrown in will cost you about $90. In Southern Oregon, a cord of oak runs $120, pear wood about $150.
Where to buy Davis at yellowpages.scradmin.org 2009 prices: Bushwhackers Firewood - (530) 412-3663 Kings Beach/Truckee Cord: Almond $340, $25 delivery 1/2 cord: Almond $195, $25 delivery Cord: Hard - Soft mix $300 $25 delivery 2008 prices: Muschetto's Firewood - (916) 725-9663 7108 Antelope Rd 1/2 Cord: Almond $209, Prem Oak $220, White Oak $219, Walnut $149 Bushwhackers Firewood - (530) 546-8307 Kings Beach/Truckee Cord: Almond $360, walnut $315, $35 delivery 1/2 cord: Almond $205, walnut $185, $35 delivery North Shore Firewood - Truckee (530) 546-5876 Cord: Almond or Oak $400 + $40 delivery 1/2 Cord: Almond or Oak $280 $40 delivery 2004-5 prices: Muschetto's Firewood - (916) 725-9663 7108 Antelope Rd Almond $240, Prem Oak $290, White Oak $280, Bushwhackers Firewood - (530) 546-8307 Kings Beach/Truckee Almond $300, fir-pine $175, Mixed $250 $20 delivery North Shore Firewood - Truckee (530) 546-5876 Cord: Almond $325, pine-fir $265, mixed $300 $30 deliverySee Also:
Wood Heating values for other varieties. E.g. there are 9 varieties of red oak with different heat values.
Home Heating Costs
Chimney Fires at: EndTimesReport and Chimney Safety Institute of America (CSIA)
U. of Missouri
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