Pain relievers - Analgesics

NSAIDs
Aspirin (Bayer, Bufferin, Anacin)
Excellent for pain relief and fever reduction. Commonly used long-term for osteoarthritis, chronic back pain and headaches.

Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Midol, Nuprin)
Popular for dental pain, menstrual cramps.
Slightly stronger (meaning you need less of it) to treat pain from soft tissue injuries and dental pain.

Do not take if you've consumed three or more drinks because alcohol is a stomach irritant and the combination can cause gastro-intestinal bleeding. Avoid during pregnancy.

Naproxen (Aleve or Naprosyn)
Pain relief and fever reduction. It doesn't have much of an anti-inflammatory effect at the recommended dose. Popular for menstrual cramps.

It is the most powerful pain reliever currently available without a prescription, but can cause even more gastrointestinal irritation than aspirin. As a result, it needs to be taken in fewer doses, and with lots of water.

Ketoprofen (Actron or Orudis)

Celecoxib Celebrex

NSAIDs for Pain Relief: Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Naproxen | webmd.com

Do not use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the first 24 hours after an injury that caused a bruise. NSAIDs may prolong bleeding under the skin. Children and teenagers who are recovering from a viral infection such as the flu or chickenpox should not take aspirin. It has been linked to Reye’s syndrome, a serious but rare condition that can result in brain, kidney, and liver damage

Acetaminophen (sometimes abbreviated as APAP) - Tylenol Excellent for pain relief and fever reduction. Commonly used long-term for osteoarthritis, chronic back pain and headaches.
Avoid drinking alcohol. It may increase your risk of liver damage while taking acetaminophen.
Acetaminophen relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold, that is, by requiring a greater amount of pain to develop before a person feels it. It reduces fever through its action on the heat-regulating center of the brain.
Acetaminophen relieves pain in mild arthritis but has no effect on the underlying inflammation, redness, and swelling of the joint.

Other: Excedrin contains paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin, and caffeine

What is the difference between Advil, Tylenol and Aleve? - tribunedigital-chicagotribune

Type Uses Mechanism of action Side Effects Precautions
Aspirin Pain, inflammation, fever, heart disease/stroke prevention Inhibition of COX-1, & COX-2 Stomach upset, ulceration, bleeding Bleeding; Ringing in the ears or hearing loss; Avoid in children under 18 with viral illness; Avoid in 3rd trimester of pregnncy
Ibuprofen Pain, inflammation, fever Inhibition of COX-1, & COX-2 Stomach upset, ulcer, bleeding Bleeding; Avoid during pregnancy
Acetaminophen Pain, fever Inhibition of the production of brain prostglandins, which sensitize pain and elevate the body temperature regulation set point. Usually well tolerated. Potential liver damage with long term usage or with heavy drinking

COX - cyclo-oxygenase
COX-1 is responsible for the baseline levels of prostaglandins.
COX-2 produces prostaglandins through stimulation. Responsible for inflammatory response.

Prostaglandins are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in humans and animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Prostacyclins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets.

Other:
Tramadol Hydrochloride (AHFS Monograph) is a narcotic-like pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain.


Opioid (Narcotic) Pain Medications

45 Americans die each day from painkiller ODs
In the last 20 years the rate of hospitalizations for prescription pain pill overdoses increased fivefold among people 45 to 85.

  • morphine (Astramorph, Avinza, Kadian, MS Contin, Ora-Morph SR)
  • hydrocodone/acetaminophen (Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Vicodin)
  • oxycodone (OxyContin, Oxecta, Roxicodone)
  • oxycodone and acetaminophen (Percocet, Endocet, Roxicet)
  • codeine (only available in generic form)
  • fentanyl (Actiq, Duragesic, Fentora)
  • hydrocodone (Hysingla ER, Zohydro ER)
  • hydromorphone (Dilaudid, Exalgo)
  • meperidine (Demerol)
  • methadone (Dolophine, Methadose)
  • oxycodone and naloxone (Targiniq ER)

Links:
should i take tylenol, advil or aspirin? | scq

last updated 14 Sep 2016